Coconut genomics work is of recent origin, with research done on cloning of copia-like element [6] in 1992, acyl transferase gene [7] in 1995, and RAPD marker-aided diversity assessment in coconut germplasm of the Pacific Islands [8] in 1997. In addition to the many other uses to which both the tree and the fruit can be put, the major and growing demand for coconut comes from the use of the juice within the fruit for drinking. In the Hawaiian Islands, the coconut is regarded as a Polynesian introduction, first brought to the islands by early Polynesian voyagers from their homelands in Oceania. Het is de enige soort in het geslacht Cocos, een zogeheten monotypisch geslacht. $29.99 $ 29. The other is a soft eye having the embryo located underneath. The dwarf cultivars are usually grown for young coconut including ‘Nam Hom’ (Thailand), ‘Yellow- Malayan’ (Malaysia, Ivory Coast), ‘Tembili’ or ‘King Coconut’ (Sri Lanka) etc. The liquid of the nut is used in beverages. Fruit-bearing starts after six years. The fruits of the palm mature in 12 months. It is a diploid species (2n=2x=32) with a large genome size of 2.15 Gb nucleotide pairs [1]. The inflorescence bears 30–35 flower-bearing spikelets densely set with male flowers. The coconut palm Cocos nucifera belongs to the palm family, one of the largest in the monocotyledon group. Since the fruit is monospermous, it encloses a single seed. The main coconut producing countries are the Philippines, Indonesia, India, Papua New Guinea and the Pacific Islands. A. Gordon, J. Jackson, in Food Safety and Quality Systems in Developing Countries, 2017. Botanical Name : Cocos nucifera L. Synonyms : Cocos indica Royle; Common Name : Nariyal, Coconut; Plant Family : Arecaceae (Palmae) According to the Rules of ICBN the names of the families should end in -aceae. Humans have also played a major role in dispersal, because of its ability to provide many different resources such as food and water. 7.5A–B). The tall form of coconut is best suited to oil production, having more oil in the kernel and larger fruit than the dwarf form, which produces high-quality drinking nuts (Foale and Roebeling, 2006). In this study, B. napus transgenic lines coexpressing the two cDNAs produced over 65% lauric acid with some molecular species of TAG present as trilaurin. Enjoy the videos and music you love, upload original content, and share it all with friends, family, and the world on YouTube. Cocos nucifera quantity. The fruit can float and endure long journeys in seawater. Coconut, Cocos nucifera L., is the only species in Cocos genus, within Aracaceae family, Cocoeae order. Coconuts in various stages of maturity on a tree. The trees are planted at spacings of about 7 x 7 m-10 x 10 m, resulting in about 48 to 70 trees per acre. The trees are tall, reaching up to 30 m in height, with a slender, often curved trunk. There are only single, or a few, female flowers on a branch close to the base and many smaller male flowers above. In an early genetic engineering success, B. napus was engineered to produce oil with about 50% lauric acid through transformation with a cDNA encoding a lauryl-ACP thioesterase from the California bay laurel (Umbellularia californica) (Voelker et al., 1996). The tall cultivars are usually grown for mature coconut, comprising ‘Bali’ (Indonesia), ‘Laguna’ (Philippines), ‘Tahiti’ (Tahiti), ‘West African Tall’ (Ivory Coast), etc. One of the most important plants of great economic importance. Het endocarp van de vrucht, met de kiemopeningen, lijkt op het gezicht van een aap, die in het Portugees Coconut palm is an important multipurpose tropical tree of the humid tropics that supports millions of people in coastal and island ecosystems for their livelihood. (January 2016) Plants are multicellular, photosynthesizing eucaryotes. 4.2 out of 5 stars 3. V. Arunachalam, in Genomics of Cultivated Palms, 2012. Tock Hing Chua, in World Crop Pests, 1997. 7.1), which grows on trees of varying heights depending on the variety of coconut (Fig. The tall tree such as the Sri Lanka or West African tall can grow up to 25–30 m while the dwarf, such as the Malayan dwarf typically does not exceed 4–8 m in height. 2014 Trade Data on exports of nondesiccated coconut products. 7.3). Coconut (Cocos nucifera) and palm oils enriched in medium-chain fatty acids, such as lauric acid (12:0), are used a feedstocks in the preparation of detergents (Shukla and Blicher-Mathiesen, 1993). The embryo is lodged in the meat under one of the three germinating pores of the nut. Most species occupy terrestrial environments, but they also occur in freshwater and saltwater aquatic environments. Opening the coconut: hit a nail into two of the three eyes and retrieve the coconut water. De kokospalm of klapperboom (Cocos nucifera) behoort tot de palmenfamilie (Palmae of Arecaceae). The native origin of the palm is uncertain, as the nuts were easily dispersed between both islands and continents by ocean currents and by early explorers. Jalani, ... S.C. Cheah, in Encyclopedia of Applied Plant Sciences, 2003. Leaf emergence to shedding takes about 2.5–3 years. Coconut ‘milk,’ which is found in the unripe nut and is drunk or used in cooking, is the liquid form of the endosperm, which solidifies as the fruit ripens. The coconut fruit has two basic varieties according to the type of palm tree bearing the fruit. Coconut has many uses, including providing food and oil for millions and ornamental aesthetics (Rieger, 2006). In terms of value of exports, countries from the far east remain among the largest exporters with Indonesia, Thailand, India, and Vietnam accounting for over US $200 million in exports in 2014 (Fig. Coconut (Cocos nucifera; Arecaceae) is widely distributed in tropical regions of the world, ranging between 20° N and 20° S latitude. Thus the new name for the family Palmae became Arecaceae. Leaf stalks 1 … Abstract. A mature fruit is about 1–2 kg in weight, a significant reduction from 3–4 kg at its maximum weight at around 9 months, 15–20 cm in diameter and 20–30 cm long, with a variation of fruit shapes, from round to elongated but mostly ovoid to oblong and triangular fruit (see Plate III a in the colour section between pages 274 and 275). Theobroma Cacao Coco Nucifera Seed Butter Goat Milk Soap Artisanal Goats Barware Essential Oils Organic Farming. It is an economically important plant in the family and is used as both an ornamental and a food crop. 9.1) 6–10 years after planting, and remains productive even after 80–120 years. Cocos Nucifera/coconut Palm Tree//whatsapp + 84-845-639-639 , Find Complete Details about Cocos Nucifera/coconut Palm Tree//whatsapp + 84-845-639-639,Coconut Palm Tree,Cocos Nucifera,Zaailing Kokospalm from Aquatic Plants Supplier or Manufacturer-VIET D.E.L.T.A INDUSTRIAL CO., LTD 7.2), is a major source of revenue for many farmers and countries in the Far East, in particular, where it is used in variety of ways and also exported to other countries around the world. Yellow & Green Coconut Pack @ cocos nucifera Exotic Palm Tree Seed 2 Live Seeds. Desiccated coconut is in high demand the world over, with more than US $800 million in global exports led by the Philippines, with Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia, Sri Lanka, and Vietnam showing significant export growth in the last few years (Fig. These high yielding precocious hybrid selections will grow outside of the tropics, in a warm and sheltered position. Figure 7.7. These are the “tall” and “dwarf” coconut trees. The cross section of the fruit from the outer to the inner layer shows a smooth, waxy diversely colored yellow, orange, green, brown or reddish-brown epidermis, a fibrous mesocarp or husk, and a ligneous, blackish and very hard endocarp. The exocarp, or the epidermis, is about 0.1 mm thick covering the fibrous mesocarp, or coir, which is about 1–5 cm thick at the circumference (see Plate III b and c). They have been found in the Caribbean and the Atlantic coasts of Africa and South America for less than 500 years (the Caribbean native inhabitants do not have a dialect term for them, but use the Portuguese name), but evidence of their presence on the Pacific coast of South America antedates Christopher Columbus’s arrival in the Americas. The immature inflorescence (spadix) is covered in spathes. J. Siriphanich, ... S. Tongchitpakdee, in Postharvest Biology and Technology of Tropical and Subtropical Fruits: Cocona to Mango, 2011. Two of the eyes are lignified. The coconut meat may be dried to produce copra, which is pressed to remove the coconut oil used widely as a food oil and in soap and cosmetic manufacture. Figure 7.4. Figure 9.1. Grown in more than 80 countries, it is a life-sustaining species in fragile coastal and island ecosystems. No Comments. Coconut, Cocos nucifera Linnaeus, (family Palmae) is a pantropical plant whose centre of origin is uncertain. Cocos nucifera Linnaeus, 1753 - coconut palm in Florida, USA. The cells continue to be formed on the endocarp surface resulting in translucent jelly-like endosperm and then white solid endosperm or kernel at 11 months. Cocos nucifera : Other Source(s): Source: Arecaceae of North America Update, database (version 2010) Acquired: 2010 : Notes: Updated for ITIS by the Flora of North America Expertise Network, in connection with an update for USDA PLANTS (2007-2010) Reference for: Cocos nucifera : Source: The coconut has spread across much of the tropics, probably aided in many cases by seafaring people. The major insect pests include the rhinoceros beetle (Oryctes rhinoceros (Linnaeus)), the palm weevils (Rhynchophorus spp. 2014 Trade Data on desiccated coconut exports globally. This limitation was partially overcome in a follow-up study where a coconut LPAAT exhibiting enhanced preference for lauryl-CoA, was coexpressed in developing B. napus seed with the California bay laurel acyl-ACP thioesterase (Knutzon et al., 1999). The word coco is a 16th century Portuguese and Spanish word for “head” or “skull,” inspired by the three indentations on the coconut shell that resembles the face of a ghost. Top 5 exporting (A) and importing (B) countries for coconuts. Coconut flesh is high in fat and can be dried or eaten fresh. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. URL:, URL:, URL:, URL:, URL:, URL:, URL:, URL:, URL:, PRODUCTION SYSTEMS AND AGRONOMY | Oil Palm and Coconut, Soft Scale Insects their Biology, Natural Enemies and Control, Peter B.E. (previous page) () It growsto 30 m tall, with a crown of 25–35 paripinnate leaves, producing 12–16 new leaves per year. Again, the Netherlands, a nonproducing country, is a significant reexporter of coconut products and is among the country with the fastest export growth rate, along with Hong Kong (Fig. Coconut production share (A) and growth rate by region (B). Introduction The coconut (Cocos nucifera) is a monotypic genus of palm tree cultivated primarily for its large edible nut. The fruit, in the form of a nut (Fig. Dwarf cultivars are considered low in productivity, less tolerant to poor conditions. Cocos nucifera is an unbranched monoecious plant of the PALMAE family. Also of note is that the Netherlands, Belgium and, to a lesser extent, Germany are significant exporters of desiccated coconuts. The coconut will split apart nicely. Cocos Nucifera is a low maintenance palm in that it is self pruning. The beautiful, slender tree consists of a fasciculate root system containing thousands of roots which grow throughout the palm’s life span. Figure 7.5. It has generally been accepted that the coconut originated in the Indian–Indonesia region and float-distributed itself around the world by riding ocean currents. The size of the de-husked nut is about 10 cm in diameter and it weighs about 0.5 kg on average (Child, 1974; Grimwood, 1975; Ohler, 1984). Coconuts, cocos nucifera on tree - download this royalty free Stock Photo in seconds. The male flowers number about 250–300 per spikelet. Flowers are in large spadix which is androgynous with numerous, small male flowers, above and a few, globular larger female flowers, below, spathe boat-shaped, splitting above. Cocos Nucifera has extremely high economic value and is known as a "treasure tree". Cocos nucifera 3D Model available on Turbo Squid, the world's leading provider of digital 3D models for visualization, films, television, and games. According to the Rules of ICBN the names of the families should end in -aceae. Put the nut on a solid underground and hit it firmly on its side. We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. It is claimed that they evolved to disperse significant distances via marine currents. Gray, in Encyclopedia of Human Nutrition (Third Edition), 2013. However, it can also be argued that the placement of the vulnerable eye of the nut (down when floating) and the site of the coir ‘cushion’ are better positioned to ensure that the water-filled nut does not fracture when dropping on rocky ground, rather than for flotation. Climatic and nutritional conditions during the flowering stage affect the relationship between the number of female flowers and ripe fruits obtained, or the fruit set rate. The familiar hard shell of the coconut is the endocarp, or inner layer, of the mature ovary of the fruit, and within the shell is the actual seed, covered with a thin brown seed coat. 7.6A–B, respectively. Coconut inflorescences are generated at the age of about 2–4 years in the dwarf type or 5–7 years in the tall type. Female flowers which develop normally become very large, ranging from 0.5 to more than 2.5 kg. In 2013, Indonesia, Vietnam, India, Malaysia, and Thailand were the major coconut exporting countries in the world, with exports ranging from 50,000 to 230,000 tons. Scientific name: Cocos nucifera Pronunciation: KOE-koase noo-SIFF-er-uh Common name(s): Coconut Palm Family: Arecaceae USDA hardiness zones: 10B through 11 (Fig. Coconut Palm Tree Plant, Malayan Dwarf, Green, 2 feet, No Ship to CA, TX, AZ. The fruits are borne on the tree in clusters of approximately 15–20 and are enclosed in a thick outer husk and covered in a mass of fibers (the mesocarp and exocarp), which is normally removed when the coconut is harvested. Download this free picture about Coconut Cocos Nucifera Tree from Pixabay's vast library of public domain images and videos. 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